Beyond Commodities: Argentina’s dynamic biotech industry

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Source: feelgrafix

By Jerry Haar and Krystal Rodriguez

The dictionary definition of crucible is “an extremely difficult experience or situation; a severe test or trial”. This is precisely where most of Latin America finds itself with its excessive dependence on commodities as the linchpin of its economy. In good times governments spend commodity windfalls on projects or programs to garner support for the political party in power. In bad times, politicians engage in handwringing and scapegoating, and the governing party borrows excessively to make up the shortfall in revenue from commodity sales.

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A New International Research Group

We are recruiting a planned research group specifically interested in international marketing and strategy under Prof. Michael Czinkota’s mentorship. The group is based both at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C and the University of Kent in Canterbury, U.K.. The group conducts and supports new research in international marketing, and examines global shifts that are affecting business, policy, and daily life. Please sign up here if you would like to participate in and communicate with our work. We look forward to exchanging thoughts and working with you.

Freedom and Globalization: Simultaneously Possible

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Source: http://xlcatlin.com/

Prof. Dr. Michael Czinkota and Dr. Valbona Zeneli

 

Globalization, trade and investment deserve our ”Thank You” for their achievements. Yes, currently, in Europe and the United States, popular discontent is forcefully expressed. An introvert trend has emerged, fed by nationalism, populism, xenophobia and anti-globalization rhetoric.

Globalization is not new; it has existed for centuries. What is different today is the speed of globalizing the world, made possible by new technologies, transportation networks, media, and international marketing. Many claim that never before in history has there been so much evidence about strong opposition to globalization. However, any comparison with the past is highly inaccurate. Only few records of resistance to globalization have been preserved for us today.

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Trade Implication of the Product Cycle

Product cycle theory shows how specific products were first produced and exported from one country but through product and competitive evolution shifted their location of production and export to other countries over time. Figure 3.4 illustrates the trade patterns that Vernon visualized as resulting from the maturing stages of a specific product cycle. As the product and the market for the product mature and change, the countries of its production and export shift.

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The product is initially designed and manufactured in the United States. In its early stages (from time t0 to t1), the United States is the only country producing and consuming the product. Production is highly capital-intensive and skilled-labor intensive at this time. At time t1, the United States begins exporting the product to other advanced countries, as Vernon classified them. These countries possess the income to purchase the product in its still new-product stage, in which it was relatively high priced. These other advanced countries also commerce their own production at time t1 but continue to be net importers. A few exports, however, do find their way to the less-developed countries at this time as well.

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Strategic Trade Part II

Repetition

Some firms in some industries have inherent competitive advantages, often efficiency based, from simply having produced repetitively for years. Sometimes referred to as “learning-by-doing,” these firms may achieve competitive cost advantages from producing not only more units (as in the scale economics described above) but from producing more units over time. A government that wishes to promote these efficiency gains by domestic firms can help the firm move down the learning curve faster by protecting the domestic market from foreign competitors. Again similar in nature to the infant industry argument, the idea is not only to allow the firm to produce more, but to produce more cumulatively over time to gain competitive knowledge from the actual process itself.

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