Our Special Initiative: Immigration and Immigrant Integration Through Trade
Migration from less developed economies and its effect on corporate and individual international business performance
Michael R. Czinkota
Professors Czinkota of Georgetown University, Knight of Williamette University and Khan of the University of Kent have initiated theories on entry strategies into international markets. Czinkota co-developed the ‘stage theory of internationalization’ where firms typically enter markets abroad over two years. Knight co-developed the ‘born global’ theory, where improved communication enhances access to international markets right from firm foundation. Khan specializes in trade from emerging economies towards wealthy nations. We intend to marry our theories with analyses of immigrants and immigration to clarify immigrant contribution to international trade.
Globalization has been associated with widespread migration of people moving from less developed to developed economies for political, economic, or social reasons. Business survival is a major factor that predicts the success of immigrant entrepreneurs and of immigrants generally, in the U.S. Recent statistics indicated that more than 12 percent of residents in the U.S. are immigrants. Remittances sent home by migrants are substantial, and often represent a significant proportion of home country gross national product. In general, migrants play important roles in their host countries. For example, migrants in the U.S. operate as entrepreneurs, investors in capital markets, tourists, volunteers, and advocates. They bring various assets, resources, international experience, social networks, a sense of patriotism and social cohesion, bridges to foreign investors, and entrepreneurial knowledge and experience. Many such migrants draw on resources from their home and host countries to economically adapt to the U.S., and launch new businesses by becoming entrepreneurs. These transnational entrepreneurs often launch businesses that involve trade and investment between the United States and the migrants’ home countries
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