Migration from less developed economies and its effect on corporate and individual international business performance

Our Special Initiative: Immigration and Immigrant Integration Through Trade

Migration from less developed economies and its effect on corporate and individual international business performance

Michael R. Czinkota

Gary Knight

Zaheer Khan

 

Project Abstract:

Professors Czinkota of Georgetown University, Knight of Williamette University and Khan of the University of Kent have initiated theories on entry strategies into international markets. Czinkota co-developed the ‘stage theory of internationalization’ where firms typically enter markets abroad over two years. Knight co-developed the ‘born global’ theory, where improved communication enhances access to international markets right from firm foundation. Khan specializes in trade from emerging economies towards wealthy nations. We intend to marry our theories with analyses of immigrants and immigration to clarify immigrant contribution to international trade.

Globalization has been associated with widespread migration of people moving from less developed to developed economies for political, economic, or social reasons. Business survival is a major factor that predicts the success of immigrant entrepreneurs and of immigrants generally, in the U.S. Recent statistics indicated that more than 12 percent of residents in the U.S. are immigrants. Remittances sent home by migrants are substantial, and often represent a significant proportion of home country gross national product. In general, migrants play important roles in their host countries. For example, migrants in the U.S. operate as entrepreneurs, investors in capital markets, tourists, volunteers, and advocates. They bring various assets, resources, international experience, social networks, a sense of patriotism and social cohesion, bridges to foreign investors, and entrepreneurial knowledge and experience. Many such migrants draw on resources from their home and host countries to economically adapt to the U.S., and launch new businesses by becoming entrepreneurs. These transnational entrepreneurs often launch businesses that involve trade and investment between the United States and the migrants’ home countries

For more detail please go to the URL listed below:

https://www.dropbox.com/s/f50af8icq2qr8ug/Migration%20from%20less%20developed%20economies%20and%20its%20effect%20on%20corporate%20and.docx?dl=0

The Janus Face of International Marketing – Part 3

Winner takes all. One key Western marketing dimension is the glory of victory in competition. Such an adherence to victory often means that, akin to Atilla’s hordes of yesteryear, there is no mercy for the vanquished. Not everywhere are such approaches supported, desired or accepted. Often, the goal becomes for the victor to mend fences, reinvigorate a feeling of togetherness and provide a cause for standing together. In many societies it is expected that one not take advantage of what could be done, but rather consensually do what ought to be done. Such context makes it far less acceptable to practice what we have called “vampire marketing,” where the airline or hotel extracts blood-sucking prices for additional services or products from its captive audience after the major purchase decision has been made. Perhaps Western marketers can learn valuable lessons from this context and consequently make themselves more valuable to their customers.

Who is on the pedestal? Particularly in the United States, we think of the individual as the key component of society. But such a perspective is not uniformly taken around the world. For example, in socialist or tribal societies it is typically the group that receives preference over the individual. Society can also be seen as the key shaper of the individual. Or perhaps the family is accorded top billing. In such cases, just imagine how different emphases in making financial decisions can be re-interpreted in various settings. What may be corruption and bribery to some may turn out to be filial devotion to others. With the strict administration of the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and the new, more stringent U.K. anti-bribery law about to take effect, there may be harsh consequences to businesses and individuals who are not attentive to the laws governing that contradiction.