Global Update: Samsung versus Apple – The Race Continues

Samsung unveiled its new watch-phone, the Galaxy Gear, today headlining the innovation of “wearable” devices. For the most part, Samsung used to be seen as lurking in the shadows of Apple, constantly following their innovation instead of creating its own. Today, the tables have turned as Samsung beats Apple in launching its smartwatch.

The Galaxy Gear is expected to be in stores as of September 25th at the price of $299. However, Samsung is not the first to launch such a product. Pebble began selling its smartwatch online back in January 2013 and from stores this past July. Apple is expected to release a similar product as well as Sony. These devices function in conjunction with specific smartphones or even an iPod touch in order to allow for more convenient uses.

What is your opinion on the new Galaxy Gear? Is Apple really falling behind? Post your views in the comment section below!

There Is Sunshine Above the Clouds (Part 7)

Part 7: Grand Solutions – Internationalizing Higher Education.

International partnerships often continue to be intriguing wallpaper for a university president’s office. C.B. Klasek, in a 1992 U.S. Department of Education publication titled Bridges to the Future: Strategies for Internationalizing Higher Education, stated “[the rector of one major university] called a group or representatives from European and U.S. universities attending centenary ceremonies, into his office and would not let them leave until each had signed a linkage agreement. None of the agreements signed was ever implemented”.

International higher education remains mainly confined to analysis within educational research rather than stimulating minds in the fields of economics and business administration. University implementation of international strategy therefore remains typically at the level equivalent to international business activities by smaller and medium sized businesses: limited, ad-hoc, unsystematic and often inconsistent.

This post is part of a series by Michael Czinkota of Georgetown University and Andreas Pinkwart of Handelshochschule Leipzig on international business research and the new role of universities. Find Part 6 here.

There Is Sunshine Above the Clouds (Part 6)

Part 6: Grand Solutions – Embedding Universities Globally.

Historically speaking, university processes have a good international track record. Early on, universities exported and imported by either admitting international students or sending theirs abroad. They attracted international students and faculty members, the latter often permanently. By using Latin as the ‘lingua franca’ outward exchanges of personnel were facilitated. New locations were sought out, sometimes for purposes of expansion, at other times as a means to escape poor and worsening conditions. International partnerships were frequent. For example, Robert E. Curran, in his 1993 exposition of Georgetown University’s history, states that Georgetown University, a Jesuit school in Washington D.C., was left in legal limbo once pope Clement XIV suppressed the Jesuit order. However, due to collaborative work with Jesuits in Byelorussia, the order continued to be recognized by Czarina Katherine the Great. For several decades, the Georgetown staff became members of the Russian Province.

In spite of these manifold international activities, universities have typically not translated their experience into an institutional strategy. Exchange programs often do not outlive their faculty founders and international hiring decisions are mostly made on an ad-hoc basis – though some organizations such as the ETH in Zuerich, according to Hugo Horta in Higher Education, have incorporated international faculty and students into their strategic planning. Research collaborations tend to be temporary and international investments have been very limited – be it due to budget or risk constraints.

Sheila Slaughter and Larry Leslie state in Academic Capitalism: Politics, Policies and the Entrepreneurial University that since the 1980’s globalization has moved university activities towards the market, resulting in academic capitalism. Though universities are the prototype of knowledge institutions, there is only a very limited body of internationalization research. Experience is insufficiently recorded and remembered. Insights tend to be peer reviewed based on academic and methodological criteria, rather than incorporation the view of a constituency. In consequence, according to Nelly P. Stromquist in Higher Education, the knowledge and guideposts on internationalization is thin, and constitutes for many universities a search for student markets or respect among colleagues, rather than positioning their knowledge base as a global service offering.

This post is part of a series by Michael Czinkota of Georgetown University and Andreas Pinkwart of Handelshochschule Leipzig on international business research and the new role of universities. Find Part 5 here.

There Is Sunshine Above the Clouds (Part 5)

Part 5: Grand Solutions – Universities and Internationalization.

Traditionally, internationalization within universities was a bottom-up activity. It occurred due to personal connections by an individual faculty members or by research teams. Increasingly, however, universities grow internationally as part of a strategic approach executed as a top-down activity driven by institutional directives.

Several key reasons account for this shift in internationalization: A scientific approach demands awareness of and interaction with international work in order to benchmark one’s own work as to its competence. Internationalization is also part of becoming a competitive enterprise and ensuring capacity utilization. As part of their mission, universities also need to provide social infrastructure and networks for their graduates.

Universities are pioneers of the information revolution. In the 21st Century, they can assume new roles as incubators and connectivity nodes for new ideas and innovations. They are undergoing fundamental change due to new technologies, tighter budgets, increased complexity and growing global competition.

Yet so far, universities have responded only to a limited extent organizationally in a systematic fashion to globalization opportunities and threats. Firms, for example, have long ago differentiated their activities into investments, imports and exports. Companies, though also slowed down by inertia, shift entry approaches dependent on market needs. To some markets they export. Global sourcing and offshoring is used in others. Firms participate in markets through franchising or licensing and often recruit their staff from around the globe. They make investments, either as sole owners or in joint ventures, and shift venues whenever necessary.

This post is part of a series by Michael Czinkota of Georgetown University and Andreas Pinkwart of Handelshochschule Leipzig on international business research and the new role of universities. Find Part 4 here.