Global Trade Barriers

The Office of U.S. Trade Representative’s National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers published annually classifies barriers into ten categories:

  1. Import policies that include tariffs and other import charges as well as customs barriers
  2. Standards, testing, labeling and certification, which includes refusal to accept U.S. manufacturer’s self-certification that they conform to a country’s product standards
  3. Government procurement, including “buy domestic” and closed bidding processes
  4. Export subsidies including export financing on preferential terms and agricultural export subsidies that displace U.S. exports in third world markets
  5. Service barriers such as limits on the range of financial services that can be offered by outside financial institutions
  6. Lack of intellectual property protection– endangering patents, copyrights or trademarks
  7. Investment barriers, including limits on global equity participation, access to outside government-funded research and development programs, and restrictions on transferring earnings and capital
  8. Anti-competitive practices with trade effects tolerated by other governments, including anti-competitive activities of both state-owned and private firms
  9. Trade restrictions affecting e-commerce including discriminatory taxation
  10. Other barriers, such as those that might encompass more than one category–bribery and corruption– or that affect a single sector

Each year the report outlines the specific barriers in each of the largest export markets in the U.S., breaking them out according to 57 countries and several regions including the European Union and the Southern Africa Customs Union. It is essential reading for global marketers looking to expand into one of these nations or regions.

 

 

This is an excerpt from Dr. Czinkota’s book Global Business: Positioning Ventures Ahead, co-authored by Dr. Ilkka Ronkainen.

Michael R Czinkota and Ilkka A Ronkainen, Global Business: Positioning Ventures Ahead (New York: Routledge, 2011), pg. 17-18.

Click HERE to acquire the full book.

Global Marketing and Freedom- Intro

In light of the recent Norwegian bombing, we will be presenting a series over the next few days focused on freedom and terrorism’s effect on international business.

There is, in fact, a direct connection between global trading and freedom. Global marketing is essential to freedom because freedom is about options. Options provide the opportunity to make decisions. Withe international marketing, companies, cross borders to provide more then one choice for customers. Global marketing does so in all corners of the globe, in the glamorous ones as well as in the small and remote ones where the efforts are not seen by others. By operating both in the lime -light and well outside of it, international markers offer freedom by providing options to the seller and the buyer — whether it is in supplying or purchasing, pricing or selecting

This is an excerpt from Dr. Czinkota’s book Global Business: Positioning Ventures Ahead, co-authored by Dr. Ilkka Ronkainen.

Michael R Czinkota and Ilkka A Ronkainen, Global Business: Positioning Ventures Ahead (New York: Routledge, 2011), pg. 235.