International Marketing and the Migrant-Owned Enterprise

by Gary Knight, Michael Czinkota. Zaheer Khan

A hopefully interesting read! Please find the abstract of the published article along with the link to the full article below.

Abstract: We propose a research investigation on migrant-own businesses that undertake international marketing ventures. Migrant-owned firms contribute substantially to their adopted countries, and many launch international ventures, targeting their home countries and other international markets (Kerr and Kerr 2016; Light 2010; Saxenian 2002; OECD 2011; United Nations 2016; USAID 2009)

Education: Key public and private investment choice for the coming administration

Prof.  Michael Czinkota

The next four years will determine where and how all the accumulated economic resources will be spent. The decisions will affect those suffering from rainy days to come. Targeted spending will sow seeds for innovation, technology, and the pursuit of happiness. In a post – Covid 19  era with large debts our environment needs to be poised for growth and expenditure. Education must become the core answer.

Covid 19 will continue to restructure the domestic and global economy, with one key facet being the delivery of education. Technology and information flows have redefined the entire field. For example, both students and teachers can again sit and wait for the common assignment to be handed out. We will increasingly need to take the path of self-direction, sharply differentiating between creativity, contentment, and the outlook of life for both students and faculty.

In addressing new issues in novel ways, we are not offering old wine in new containers but instead offering fundamental innovation and new methods of analysis combined with linkages between fields of thought. These methods need to enable students to overcome the gap when forced to communicate asynchronously. Within this context communication, planning and interaction attain new meaning. Online education needs to re-introduce specific dimensions of personal cross-fertilization. For example, we are not communicating and learning enough about the relationship between economically forced migration and entrepreneurship even though fundamental adjustments in education and capabilities could make the world of a difference to the lives of migrants.

There is a substantial need to re-define and newly address practical education and to do so simultaneously across functional fields with a concentrated focus at a low cost. I increasingly conclude that a re-fashioning of the educational goals, approaches, and delivery is needed. To make progress on my understanding,  I serve as a four-year board member on the Lord Fairfax Community College in Virginia representing the county of Page. Overall the college educates more than 23,000 students each year. Courses can cover the learning of a special and needed skill or to achieve academic progress that would lead to acceptance into a four-year college. Examples are students who engage in a career as phlebotomists, where they draw blood as a doctor’s assistant. Due to the exchange and transfer of academic credits, students also prepare with their studies for full graduation from a well-established but distant university which otherwise would be out of reach.

All this learning is done in a close-by facility which allows the student to save on housing costs, reduce psychological distance, and to maintain close ties with the family. This proximity helps in terms of personal as well as regional enrichment. Education brings clear advantages of brainpower and attracts further support just like tax rebates, logistics facilities, duty-free zones, or preferential market access.

Jenkins Hall of the LFCC will soon be inaugurated together with a new campus in Luray. Business subsidies are large and far-reaching. For decades I have traveled to historically unique edifices and structures.  I‘ve visited the Coliseum in Rome, the Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, and burial sites in China and Egypt. When built, many were of them were capable of accommodating far more than the entire local population of their day. But there was a reason for such spatial exuberance. The new facilities including Jenkins hall reflect a desire to build a better future and a commitment to competitiveness.

The easy availability of money in today’s era and the alacrity to spend it in support of causes should make education both an example and exhortation. Both Georgetown University and LFCC have a unique opportunity during this period of Covid-19, to adjust and finetune their offering and education model. There are many ways to improve our capabilities in terms of design, delivery, and diversity. There is much we can learn from each other. Let us leave future generations to ponder and admire the strength and enthusiasm supporting our education.

Prof. Czinkota ( is on the faculty emeritus of the Georgetown University Business School and serves on the board of Lord Fairfax Community College Board. He served in the US government as the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Commerce. His key book is International Marketing, 11th ed. Cengage 2021

Technology a Key Catalyst in a Changing Society

Michael R. Czinkota


 Amalia Stahl

When analyzing the midterm Covid-19 effects, many pundits envision a return to the status quo ante once the current societal disruptions have calmed down. We doubt such an outcome due to the magnitude of the societal shifts triggered by Covid-19 along with the emergence of new technologies that take on an increasingly important role for business, government, and the individual. Just like toothpaste once squeezed out of the tube becomes difficult to repackage back into the tube, policy and behavior once explored become very challenging to ignore. 

Technology is today’s most critical man-made driver of global shifts, replacing and substituting established processes. It has already renewed content and context for many firms and individuals. For example, new routings between countries and consumers that were traditionally impassable or leading to long time delays have been made accessible, thus creating what some have called a death (or at least diminishment) of distance. . The opening of the Swiss Ceneri base tunnel provides greatly enhanced connectivity between Alpine mountain ranges. The Zhuhai bridge makes a dramatic new connection to Hong Kong, Macau, and Mainland China. Both of these edifices have changed geographic proximity.

Due to technology, information can now be rapidly transferred around the globe.   While immigration may be fueling population shifts in wealthy nations, technology is fueling the growth of the business and consumption flows around the world. Historically, worker mobility was a critical human resource variable that involved changing physical presence. Today, worker mobility may mean as little as someone working on a computer at a different location. Increasingly, there is no longer even the need for such activity to take place synchronously.  

The power of technology can be momentous and its impact may not always be fully visible from the start of its implementation.  Often its relevance bubbles under the surface. A testament to the importance of technology is broadband internet. As an indicator of technological development, the number of fixed broadband subscribers matters since a high number of subscribers per capita usually indicates a high level of technology. Advanced economies tend to have the most broadband subscribers which is most reflective of business capabilities. By contrast, the number of subscribers in many developing economies, such as Burkina Faso and Afghanistan, is currently effectively zero. Thus, technologies tend to be most evolved in advanced economies and least evolved in developing economies. The distinction is important because technology is critical to entrepreneurship, productivity, innovation, national economic vitality, and superior living standards.

Technological developments over the past decade have led to dramatic changes in the way people think about communication and information sharing. Mobile telephone subscriptions worldwide keep rising greatly and contribute the largest share of worldwide sales in the consumer electronics sector. Many mature markets have over 100 percent mobile penetration (meaning that some owners have more than one phone, not that all members of that market’s population own a phone).

Technological advances lead to greater information sharing worldwide and allow for new equipment to be more sophisticated and perform more functions at a lower cost. More intelligent and accurate control equipment can bring energy efficiency and large cost savings. As we look at the world marketplace, our planning should focus more on technology. With more technology, even poor countries can become more efficient and successful. Enhanced with the power of financial remittances and acquisition of innovation from countries around the world, technology should become the watchword for the future.

Professor Michael Czinkota ( works on International Business and Trade issues. His key textbook is International Marketing which goes into its 11edition. 

Amalia Stahl is a student at Georgetown University majoring in Mathematics and Fine Arts.