What Drives Globalization? Part 2/4

Globalization is driven by four factors:

  1. Cost
  2. Market
  3. Environment
  4. Competition


Consumers in advanced economies are becoming more similar in terms of education, income, lifestyles, aspirations, and their use of leisure time. Marketers of certain products find ready buyers in countries with high purchasing power and well-developed infrastructures. Still other products might fare best in markets that are less sophisticated.

Having a global strategy does not mean that a company should serve the entire globe. Critical choices include deciding where to spend resources and where to hang back. The usual approach is to start by picking regions and then countries within them. Regional groupings might follow the organizational structure of existing multinational management or export offices, such as splitting Europe into northern, central, and southern regions that have similar demographic and behavioral traits. Market data might be more readily available in situations where the firm is grouping markets according to existing structures and frameworks.

This is an excerpt from Dr. Czinkota’s book Global Business: Positioning Ventures Ahead, co-authored by Dr. Ilkka Ronkainen.

Michael R Czinkota and Ilkka A Ronkainen, Global Business: Positioning Ventures Ahead (New York: Routledge, 2011), pg.91.